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Vitamins: complete information of Vitamins A, D, E, K, B, C and biotin

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Vitamins: Introduction -

These are great notes for science students and very important information for all other people.

Observe your health. If you have it, thank God and understand its importance. Health is a gift of nature to these mortal beings which can never be bought with money. 

The existence of effective vitamins in foods was first detected by British ships in the early 18th century. At that time some people would get sick while traveling by ship, especially their gums started bleeding, the muscles of the body became weak and they would die due to stop in heart rate. The famous ship captain Cook cured this terrible disease by consuming only fresh fruits and vegetables and lemon juice, but he could not name the vitamins found in them.


In the 19th century, around 1880, another disease 'beriberi' reappeared in the mariners. In this, some nerves of the body would get swollen and there would be paralysis in the muscles. This disease was also dissected by the Japanese ship Admiral Takai by consuming only bran grains, peeled pulses, fruits, etc. to the patients. 

→ Some vitamins, such as  B12, and K the bacteria produce the visceral body.

Definition of vitamin:-

Vitamins are those organic substances necessary in our diet for the completion of specific biological activities in our body, which maintain optimum growth and health of our body or organism.

Only the smallest amount of vitamins are needed.

→  Deficiency disease occurs due to a deficiency of vitamins.

→ The first vitamin was discovered by N.I. Lunin in 1881.

 Hopkins and Funk first used the term 'Vitamin'.

→ The earliest known vitamin is B1 (Thiamine).

Classification of vitamins:-

On the basis of their solubility in water and fat, they are classified into two categories -

1. Fat-Soluble Vitamins- 

These vitamins are soluble in fats and oils but insoluble in water.

 Vitamins A, D, E, K are fat-soluble vitamins.

→ Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and in adipose tissue found under the skin.

2. Water Soluble Vitamins 

These vitamins are water-soluble and insoluble in fats and oils.  
Vitamin B class and Vitamin C have been kept in it.


→ Water-soluble vitamins should be supplemented regularly in the diet as they are easily excreted with urine.

→ Vitamins soluble in water other than vitamin B12 are not stored in the body.

1. Vitamin A (Retinol, Antixerophthalmic) -

→ Its molecular formula is C20 H29 OH.

.  Benefits of vitamins  A-
1.  Keeps the eye healthy.
2. Required for the absorption of calcium.
3. Increases immunity power.
4. Essential for skin health.
5. Keeps the digestive system fine.

. Vitamin A deficiency diseases -

1. Hardening of the xerophthalmia (cornea),
2.  Night blindness, Cataract, 
3. Inflammation and dryness of the mucous membrane of the eyes,
4. Drying of the lacrimal glands,
5. Growth retardation in children,
6. Weight Loss,
7. Cough, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Dryness of skin, Neuralgia.

. Sources of vitamin A-
Coriander leaf, carrots, butter, milk, baked predominantly present in mango, spinach, fish liver oil, and so on.

. The daily requirement of vitamin A-
1000u per day with mother's milk for a small child,
1-2 mu per day or 7000-9000u for a healthy adult,
Pregnant women need 9000u per day.

2. Vitamin D (Calciferol, Sunlight vitamin)-

. Use of Vitamin D-

1.  Essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

2. Necessary for the growth, the strength of bones, teeth, hair.

. Vitamin D deficiency diseases- 

 1.  Bone deformities of children ( Rickets ),

2. Osteomalacia (Adult joint pain, osteomalacia),

3. White leucorrhoea, rheumatism, diabetes, pneumonia, cough, heart disease, antelope, hysteria, etc.

. Sources of Vitamin D -

1. Sunlight (The chemical element called Argosterol present in the layer of fat under the skin reacts with the ultraviolet rays of the sun to form vitamin D).

2. All Sources of Vitamin A,  

Vitamin D is not destroyed by keeping it on fire for a long time.

3. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)-

. Benefits of Vitamin E-
1.  It is from its presence that masculinity in men and the ability to conceive in women is obtained.
2. Prevents rot and odor.
3. Helps to heal wounds.
4. Increases immunity.

. Vitamin E  deficiency diseases-

1. Impotence, impotence,

2. Infertility,

3. Genital diseases,

4. Symptoms of premature aging.

. Sources of Vitamin E-

1. Most germinated wheat

2. Vegetable oil, milk, green leafy vegetables, butter, etc.

 The young generation should not eat fried food items, finely ground flour.

4. Vitamin K (Napthoquinone) -

→ It was first detected in 1934.

. Use of Vitamin K-
1. Stops coagulation of blood flowing due to any reason. 
2. Prevents excessive bleeding in pregnant women.
3. This vitamin is used in some conditions to increase blood clotting before the operation.
4. It also helps in allowing glucose to enter the cell membrane and converting glucose into glycogen.

. Vitamin K deficiency diseases -
After an accident, the natural process of blood clotting (clotting of blood) is reduced.

. Sources of Vitamin K-

1. High in  CabbageGreen Vegetables,
2. Milk, Butter,

3. Tomato, Potato, Soybean,

4. Wheat Bran.

→ Vitamin K is destroyed by sun heating and heating, but it continues to be produced in the intestines.

5. Vitamin B or F (Thiamine)-

→ Its molecular formula is  C 12 H 18 N 4 Cl  2 O5.

. Use of Vitamin B1-
1. Gives strength to the nerves, digestive organs, heart, liver of the body.
2. Keeps muscles active and provides agility.
3. Keeps blood pressure regular and controlled.

. Diseases caused due to deficiency of Vitamin B1-
1.   Beri Beri (Party or complete paralysis of the whole body due to weakness of the nervous system, weakness of the heart),
2. Indigestion,
3. Neurological Disorders,
4. Eye diseases,
5. Hair loss,
6. nosebleeds, weakness, nervousness,
7. Diabetes,
8. White Leprosy,
9. Madness,
10. Lack of milk to the mother.

. Vitamin B1 source-
1.  Legumes, Juicy Fruits, Green Vegetables 
2. Banana, unsweetened cereal 
3. Sprouted Grains
4. Fruits with hard peels, milk, etc are more available.

 . Daily requirement-
6-10 mg per day for children, adults,
Pregnant and lactating women 4-5 mg daily. 

6. Vitamin B2    or  G,(Riboflavin)-

→ This vitamin was discovered by Mr. Gold Berger in 1926.

. Benefits of vitamins B2-
1.  Development from infancy to puberty takes place under the influence of this vitamin.
2. Removes all diseases of the skin.
3. Prevents various diseases of the eye such as web, redness, haze, blindness, cavities, swelling in the eyelids, burning.
4. Hair Beauty
5. Protects from looking like old people in youth itself.

. Vitamin B2 deficiency diseases-
1. Keilosis (cracking of the lips),
2. Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue),
3. Dermatitis,
4. Blood disorders, white spots, ulcers in the mouth, blood loss, paralysis, cataract,
5. Cai (vomit) to the pregnant.

. Sources of Vitamin B2-
Most B2 pulses in lentils,
In fruits in apples,
In the grain in the sorghum,
In radish leaves in vegetables,
And soybeans are found in milk, eggs, meat.

Daily Requirement of Vitamin B2-
7-12 mg daily for children,
Adults 1-2 mg daily,
12-15 mg daily during pregnancy.

7. Vitamin B3 ( Pantothenic Acid )-

. Benefits of vitamins B3-
Component of co-enzyme in metabolic activities.

. B3 deficiency diseases - 
1.  Dermatitis or skin disease,
2.   Affected growth and fertility.

. Sources of Vitamin B3-
Milk, Tomato, Groundnut, etc.

8. Vitamin B5 (Nicotinic Acid or Niacin)-

Benefits of vitamins B5-  
1. Helps in the oxidation of carbohydrates and amino acids.
2. NAD used in respiration is a component of NADP.
3. Increases memory power.

. Vitamin B5 deficiency diseases-
1. Pellagra (scabs on the tongue and skin), 
2. Digestive power impaired,
3. Weak memory.

. Sources of Vitamin B5-
1. Lentils, cereals,
2. More is found in yeast.

9. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)-

Benefits of vitamins B6-
1. Amino acids, aids in protein metabolism,
2. Raising Blood,
3. Aids in the digestion of fats,
4. Increases brain power,
5. Control of the nervous system,
6. Prevents baldness.

. Vitamin B6 deficiency diseases-
1. Convulsions,
2. Early Morning Nausea in Pregnancy,
3. Anemia,
4. Skin diseases,
5. Kidney stones,
6. Weight Loss.

. Sources of Vitamin B6-
1. Top layer of wheat and rice,
2. Lentils, groundnuts, and vegetables,
3. Nuts, Yeast.

. Daily requirement-    2 - 3 mg daily.

10. Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)-

→ It is also called a red vitamin.

Benefits of vitamins B12-
1. Fabrication of RBCs
2. Manufacture of Nucleoproteins 
3. Help in Growth 
4. Creation of New Consciousness and Power 
5. Removes chronic headache.

. Vitamin B12 deficiency diseases-
1.   Deficiency of hemoglobin in RBC,
2.  Pernicious anemia,
3. noun emptiness, paralysis,
4. Stiffness etc.

. Sources of Vitamin B12-
1. It is mostly found in milk, curd.
2. In fish, egg, meat, etc.

11. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)-

→ It is also known as antiscorbutic acid
 Its molecular formula is C6H8O6.

Benefits of vitamins C-
1. Collagen in the form of supporting collagen fibers in the Krebs cycle forms the intercellular matrix.
2. Increases immunity.
3. Forms the matrix of dentin and bones.
4. Strengthens the digestive system.
5. Growth of the body, 
6. Purifies blood.
7. Helps in quick healing and healing of wounds.

. Vitamin C deficiency diseases-
1.  scurvy (bleeding from gum),
2. Physical and mental weakness,
3. Dryness of scalp and hair,
4. Skin diseased.

. Sources of Vitamin C-
1. Citrus Fruits (Lemon, Seasonal, Orange)
2. Most in Gooseberry.
→ It gets destroyed by exposure to sunlight, alkalis, and remains with acid substances for a long time.

Daily requirement-  
Every healthy person needs at least 50mg per day.
 Patients with stones should not consume food containing Vit C.

12. Vitamin H ( Biotin or B7 )-

Benefits of vitamins H-
It aids in fat synthesis and energy production.

. Vitamin H deficiency diseases-
1. Hair loss, 
2. Skin diseases, 
3. Neurological disorders.

. Sources of Vitamin H-
It is found in tomatoes, yeast, peanut, eggs, etc.

13. Folic Acid (B11)-

→ It is also a water-soluble vitamin.

Benefits of vitamins B11-
1.   Formation of blood cells,
2. Aids in the synthesis of nucleic acids,
3. Aids in physical growth.

. Vitamin B11 deficiency diseases-
1.  Anemia, 
2. Decreased physical growth.

. Sources of  Folic Acid-
It is found in green leafy vegetables-vegetables, soybeans, yeast, eggs, etc.

Conclusion -

Dear friends! I have given detailed information about vitamins. If you have any doubt then you must ask by commenting. Thanks for visiting!

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